Golden Football Magazine
NFL Championship Games
1957: Cleveland Browns @ Detroit Lions
This series covers the history of the NFL through the prism of its yearly championship games.
Note: The peach-colored boxes contain asides that provide interesting material but could be skipped without losing the continuity of the article.

Jim Brown


Tommy O'Connell at Illinois


George Wilson


John Henry Johnson


Tobin Rote


Vince Costello


Milt Plum


Howard Cassady

The NFL tweaked several rules for the 1957 season.
  • During sudden-death overtime, rules for time outs are the same as in a regular game, including the last two minutes of the second and fourth quarters.
  • Home teams must wear dark jerseys and road teams must wear white. Previously, NFL teams were allowed to wear whatever uniform color they liked, even if it clashed with the other team, and were not required to have a white jersey. Television viewers needed to distinguish one team from the other. One team wearing blue jerseys and the other red didn't register on black and white tv's.

In the Eastern Conference, the Cleveland Browns returned to the top after a one-year hiatus.

  • Despite losing even more players from his AAFC teams of the 1940s, Paul Brown added a sensational rookie who helped him regain the championship.
  • WR Dante Lavelli, C Frank Gatski, E-P Horace Gillom, DT John Kissell, and G Abe Gibron all departed after the '56 campaign.
  • Brown needed to solve the QB problem that beset him in '56 after Otto Graham retired for good. The coach helped ease the burden on whoever called the signals by drafting RB Jim Brown of Syracuse in the first round of the draft.
    The Los Angeles Rams held the second pick in the draft, and coach Sid Gillman wanted Brown. But, after the Packers used the Lottery bonus pick on Paul Hornung, who played QB at Notre Dame, the Rams ownership insisted on taking a local boy, USC RB Jon Arnett. Then the 49ers chose their local boy, QB John Brodie of Stanford. With identical 5-7 records, the Packers, Steelers, and Browns did a flip off for the next two picks, and Cleveland lost both flips. So Green Bay took E Ron Kramer, and Pittsburgh selected Purdue QB Len Dawson, the player Brown coveted most. So he "settled" for Jim Brown. All six players forged strong pro careers with Hornung and Brown earning enshrinement in Canton OH.
  • Jim Brown remains at the top of many writers' list of best running backs ever. He possessed a superb combination of speed and strength with an unextinguishable competitive fire in his belly. Paul Brown built his offense around the rookie, who gained 942y, tops in the league as were his nine rushing TDs. He added another TD on a pass reception. Jim set a new single-game rushing record of 237y against the Rams November 24 before 65,000.
    The Browns averaged over 50,000 in home attendance for the first time since joining the NFL in 1950.
  • With 1956's veteran disappointments, George Raterman and Babe Parilli, given their walking papers, fourth-year man Tommy O'Connell took hold of the signal-calling job. He started nine games while Milt Plum, a rookie out of Penn State, started the other three.
  • The Browns established themselves once again as the team to beat in the East by besting the defending champion Giants in the opener 6-3. They also defeated New York in the finale in Yankee Stadium 34-28, although they already had the division clinched.
  • Cleveland's final mark was 9-2-1, with one of the losses coming to Detroit 20-7 in the second-to-last game. Brown won Coach of the Year for overseeing the turnaround from 5-7 in '56.
The West championship wasn't settled until a playoff game.
  • The Lions, like the Browns, had fallen in t he standings - but for two years - after reaching the championship game in 1952-53-54.
  • Weeks before the '57 season began, coach Buddy Parker suddenly resigned.
    On August 12, 600 fans gathered for the "Meet the Lions" banquet in a Detroit hotel. When Parker took the podium, he shocked everyone in attendance by announcing, I can't handle this team anymore. It's the worst team I've ever seen in training camp. They have no life, no go, just a completely dead team. I don't want to get caught in the middle of another losing season. I'm leaving Detroit football. And I'm leaving tonight.
    If anyone thought Buddy was joking, they didn't after he walked off the podium and left the building. Two weeks later, he was hired by the Pittsburgh Steelers. Parker later called his resignation "the mistake of a lifetime."
    Bobby Layne held more clout with the team than the head coach. Parker knew it and hated it.
  • Assistant George Wilson took over the Lions and obviously injected some life in the team because they finished 8-4 and tied with the 49ers for the West Division crown.
  • Two players the Lions acquired in trades over the summer helped them immensely. FB John Henry Johnson, the only black player on the '57 roster, came from San Francisco and led the team in rushing with 621y, good for fourth in the league. Like his namesake, Johnson was a "steel driving man" who could run up the middle and wide as well. He could also block and, if necessary, play DB. Former Packer QB Tobin Rote proved invaluable when Bobby Layne broke his leg late in December.
  • A trio of 30-year-olds led the 49ers to the top of the division: QB Y. A. Tittle, RB Joe Perry, and WR Billy Wilson. Tittle perfected the "Alley Oop" pass to 6'3" rookie WR R. C. Owens, a basketball player in college.
  • The 49ers hosted the Lions in the West playoff game December 22. SF jumped out to a 24-7 halftime lead and extended it with a FG early in Q3. But the rest of the contest belonged to the Lions, who scored 24 unanswered points to take the title 31-27.
Detroit rode the momentum from that victory into the championship game the following Sunday.
  • Despite that bump and the fact that the Browns had never won in Detroit, oddsmakers made Cleveland three-point favorites.
  • The coaches presented a stark contrast - Wilson in his first year against Brown in his twelfth. Perhaps that was why Vegas gave Cleveland the edge.
  • Each team's roster included just 15 players from the title clash of 1954.
  • Jim Brown was not the only rookie who contributed to the Browns' East title. Newcomer Vince Costello moved into the middle of the defensive line while Bill Quinlan, a rough and ready rookie from Michigan State, solidly filled a DE spot.
  • Coach Brown worried about the rustiness of his starting QB, O'Connell. Tommy piloted the club most of the season only to suffer a severely sprained ankle early in December. He hadn't seen action in a month. Plum, the backup who was great in the final game against the Giants, was bothered by a sore leg.
  • A former Lion, Lew Carpenter, filled one HB spot with Ray Renfro, one of the game's fastest and best receivers, on the other side of Jim Brown.
  • Layne would not be healed in time for the title clash. So Rote would take the helm fresh off his outstanding performance in the comeback against the Niners. Like O'Connell, the seven-year veteran would be experiencing his first championship game.
  • In addition to Johnson, Tobin could hand the ball to Howard "Hopalong" Cassady, the 1955 Heisman Trophy winner from Ohio State.
  • Detroit's leading receiver was 30-year-old Jim Doran with 33 catches for 624y. Six other receivers had double-digit receptions, led by Cassady with 25.
  • The Lions were the hottest team in the league the last month, capturing their last four games and six of their last seven.

Cleveland Plain Dealer cartoon day of the game
1957 Cleveland Browns
# Player Pos. Hgt. Wgt. College Exp.
10 John Borton QB 6-0 210 Ohio State 1
15 Tommy O'Connell QB 5-11 190 Illinois 4
16 Milt Plum QB 6-1 205 Penn State 1
18 Bobby Freeman HB 6-1 200 Auburn 1
20 Don Paul DB 6-0 185 Washington State 7
22 Ken Konz DB 5-10 185 LSU 4
24 Warren Lahr DB 5-11 190 Case Western 8
26 Ray Renfro HB 6-1 190 North Texas 5
30 Lew Carpenter HB 6-1 205 Arkansas 4
32 Jim Brown FB 6-2 220 Syracuse 1
34 Walt Michaels LB 6-0 230 Washington & Lee 6
35 Galen Fiss LB 6-0 225 Kansas 1
36 Ed Modzelewski FB 6-0 215 Maryland 5
40 Preston Carpenter E 6-2 190 Arkansas 1
42 Junior Wren DB 6-0 190 Missouri 1
44 Chet Hanulak HB 5-10 185 Maryland 3
46 Billly Reynolds HB 5-11 195 Pittsburgh 4
48 Milt Campbell KR 6-3 215 Indiana 1
50 Vince Costello LB 6-0 230 Ohio 1
52 Joe Amstutz C 6-5 265 Indiana 1
56 Art Hunter C 6-4 230 Notre Dame 3
62 Herschel Forester G 6-0 230 SMU 3
63 Fred Robinson G 6-1 235 Washington 1
64 Jim Ray Smith G 6-3 240 Baylor 1
65 Tom Catlin G 6-1 215 Oklahoma 4
70 Don Colo DT 6-3 250 Brown 7
72 Henry Jordan DT 6-2 250 Virginia 1
74 Mike McCormack T 6-4 245 Kansas 6
76 Lou Groza T-K 6-3 240 Ohio State 11
79 Bob Gain DT 6-3 255 Kentucky 5
80 Len Ford DE 6-4 245 Michigan 9
82 Frank Clarke E 6-1 215 Colorado 1
84 Bill Quinlan DE 6-3 250 Michigan State 1
86 Paul Wiggin DT 6-3 240 Stanford 1
88 Pete Brewster E 6-3 210 Purdue 5
1957 Detroit Lions
# Player Pos. Hgt. Wgt. College Exp.
18 Tobin Rote QB 6-3 215 Rice 7
21 Carl Karilivacz DB 6-0 190 Syracuse 4
24 Jack Christiansen DB 6-1 205 Colorado State 6
25 Jim David DB 5-11 180 Colorado State 5
26 Gene Gedman HB 5-11 195 Indiana 4
28 Yale Lary DB 5-11 185 Texas A&M 5
30 Tom Tracy FB 5-9 205 Tennessee 1
35 John Henry Johnson FB 6-2 205 St. Mary's (CA) 3
40 Howard Cassady KR 5-10 180 Ohio State 1
41 Terry Barr DB 6-0 190 Michigan 1
43 Gary Lowe G 5-11 195 Michigan State 1
47 Jim Martin LB 6-2 225 Notre Dame 7
50 Charlie Ane T 6-2 265 USC 4
52 Frank Gatski C 6-3 240 Marshall 11
56 Joe Schmidt LB 6-1 220 Pittsburgh 4
57 Roger Zatkoff LB 6-2 215 Michigan 4
66 Harley Sewell G 6-1 225 Texas 5
67 Stan Campbell G 6-0 230 Iowa State 5
68 Gene Cronin DE 6-2 230 Pacific 1
70 Ray Krouse DT 6-3 265 Maryland 6
72 Gil Mains DE 6-2 245 Murray State 4
73 Ken Russell T 6-3 250 Bowling Green 1
74 Bob Miller DT 6-3 240 Virginia 5
75 John Gordy G 6-3 250 Tennessee 1
76 Lou Creekmur T 6-4 255 William & Mary 7
78 Darris McCord DE 6-4 250 Tennessee 2
79 Gerry Perry T 6-4 235 Pepperdine 3
80 Jerry Reichow HB 6-2 215 Iowa 1
82 Leon Hart E 6-5 255 Notre Dame 7
83 Jim Doran E 6-2 200 Iowa State 6
84 Dave Middleton E 6-1 190 Auburn 2
86 Bob Long LB 6-3 230 UCLA 2
87 Dorne Dibble E 6-2 195 Michigan State 6
88 Steve Junker E 6-3 220 Xavier (OH) 1

Briggs Stadium packed for football

Jim Martin

Pete Brewster

Ken Konz

Terry Barr

Gene Gedman

Jim Doran

Warren Lahr


Bob Long

Jim Brown runs against the Lions
Milt Campbell

Billy Reynolds

Yale Lary

Walt Michaels

Lew Carpenter

Chet Hanulak

Preston Carpenter

Joe Schmidt stops a Browns runner.

Jerry Reichow
The forecast called for sub-freezing temperatures with a chance of snow and NW winds 15-22 mph.
  • Instead, brilliant sunshine raised the thermometer to the mid-30s.
  • The dry, firm turf provided good footing in most areas of the gridiron.
  • A screaming Briggs Stadium throng of 55,263 saw their heroes administer the worst defeat in Cleveland Browns history.
  • Bobby Layne sat on the bench in a suit and tie with his right ankle in a cast. He helped out with the phones during the game.
  • Despite the sunshine, the lights were turned on from the start of the game.
  • NBC aired the game nationally on both television and radio.
  • Quarter 1
    Jim Martin booms the kickoff out of the EZ for a touchback. Tommy O'Connell starts with a down and out to Pete Brewster who snags the ball and steps out at the 37. Jim Brown takes a pitchout around LE to the 43. But the drive bogs down, and Ken Konz punts to Terry Barr at 11, but he gets nowhere.
    The Detroit offense immediately sets the tone for the game. Gene Gedman runs up middle to 20. John Henry Johnson stutter steps up the middle for 19.
    The Browns did not treat Johnson gently when they tackled him, and John Henry needed first aid on one occasion. The FB had drawn Cleveland's ire by knocking out four of Ed Modzelewski's teeth when the Browns played in Detroit three weeks earlier.
    Tobin Rote fires over middle to rookie E Steve Junker who makes a lunging catch at the 40 in Cleveland territory. After a 1y run, Rote goes to his version of the down and out to Jim Doran for 13 to the 25. 1st down. Gedman gains 3 on a trap play over the right side. Rote then passes to Howard "Hopalong" Cassady speeding down the right side into the EZ, but Warren Lahr bats the ball away. On 4th and 7, Martin kicks a FG from the 31. Lions 3 Browns 0
    Jim Martin played football at East Tech High School in Cleveland and spent his first NFL season (1950) with the Browns.
    Martin kicks into the EZ again, but Brown catches it 5y deep and runs out to the 17. O'Connell throws a 9y shot to Ray Renfro. Brown goes straight ahead for 1st down at the 30. But the momentum ends abruptly when O'Connell throws but LLB Bob Long leaps and intercepts. He returns 17y to the 19.
    Rote runs a QB draw up the middle to the 1, then rams into the EZ on the next snap. Lions 10 Browns 0 with four minutes remaining in the period.

    Tobin Rote scores the first Lions TD.
    Olympics champion Milt Campbell returns the kick 20y to the 23, where he fumbles. The ball squirts back to the 15 where Barr recovers it. After a 1y gain, Rote throws a slant in to RE Junker who crashes to the 1. Gedman dives over LG for the TD. Lions 17 Browns 0
    Campbell became the first African American to win the gold medal in the decathlon at the 1956 Summer Olympic Games. He played football at Indiana and was drafted by the Browns in 1957. However, Paul Brown released him after that season for marrying a white woman. Milt then played several years in the Canadian Football League.
    Billy Reynolds takes the kickoff at the 4, slips, and returns to the 22. O'Connell goes to the out pattern to LE Brewster again to the 42. Renfro tales a reverse to the Detroit 37, where DB Yale Lary drags him out of bounds. Lew Carpenter sweeps RE for 2 as the quarter ends.
    Detroit scored each of the three times it had the ball in the first 15 minutes.

Steve Junker makes a fingertip grab in Q1.
  • Quarter 2
    Brown turns the corner around LE, pushes through two tacklers in the secondary, then shakes another one and continues into the EZ to complete the 35y TD. Lou Groza, the "Extra Point Automaton," adds the point. Lions 17 Browns 7
    Groza kicks low to the 4 to Lary who takes the ball on the run to the 13. Rote passes down and out to Doran on the 25 as Konz wrestles Jim out of bounds. On 2nd-and-7, Johnson rambles 19y to the 47. Playing 2nd and 10 soon after at the Cleveland 41, Rote fires quickly to Tom Tracy running across from the left. LB Walt Michaels' tackle leaves Tracy injured at the 25. Cleveland holds firm, and on 4th down Wilson sends Martin in for a FG. But when teammates in the huddle want to go for it, Rote calls for a fake. Kneeling to take the snap, Tobin jumps up, rolls right. As the defenders close in to stop the first down, Rote throws to Junker who has broken free behind the secondary at the 3 and continues into the EZ. Martin converts. Lions 24 Browns 7
    The fake FG play had been in the Lions' playbook all year without being used.
    With the wind at his back, Martin blasts the kickoff out of the EZ. O'Connell starts the possession with another down and out to Brewster to the 36. Lew Carpenter starts around RE but is nailed behind line for a 3y loss by LB Joe Schmidt. The Browns try a dipsy-do, but it backfires. O'Connell tosses to HB Chet Hanulak running right. He starts to pass, recocks, then throws into traffic toward Renfro. The ball is short, and DB Jim David snares it on the Cleveland 46.
    Rote connects with Junker again. Taking the pass over the middle, the rookie E turns left to the sideline, is hit and fumbles forward. DB Don Paul picks up the pigskin at 7 and is downed at the 6 by Cassady.
    O'Connell goes to the down-and-out-to-Brewster well once too often. His pass is short, allowing Barr to intercept at the 18 and run down the sideline to paydirt. Lions 31 Browns 7
    Martin kicks to Brown in the EZ. Jim runs up the middle, breaks tackles, and continues to the 46, where Cassady drags him down. With O'Connell ineffective, Paul Brown turns to his rookie backup. On the first play, Plum runs a QB draw to the 36y stripe, where Barr makes the tackle.
    Plum revealed after the game that, despite the trainer wrapping his leg tightly before the game, he aggravated his pulled hamstring on his first play. It really hurt after that. I could barely run on it at all.
    Then the turnover bug bites again. Plum throws over the middle, where Lary knocks the ball up in the air. Schmidt snags it and is downed immediately by Preston Carpenter.
    The Lions drive far enough into Cleveland territory to allow Martin, with 0:05 on the clock, to attempt a 44y FG, but the ball sails off to the left.
    xxx
  • Quarter 3
    Groza kicks to Lary at the goal line, Yale returning up the middle to the 25. Two plays later, Rote throws to Cassady to the 34, a yard short of the first down. Lary punts to Reynolds at the 19, but G John Gordy tackles him from behind at the 20.
    Plum pitches out to Lew Carpenter who heads around RE to the 48. After Lew gains a yard, Plum passes to the other Carpenter brother, Preston, to the Lion 32. After Lew gains a yard on a crossbuck. Plum fakes a handoff, rolls right, and hits Preston to the 15. Brown gets the next handoff and rambles around LE until DB Karl Karilivacz blocks him out of bounds at the 10. Plum throws to right to Preston to the 5. Then Lew finishes the march by taking a handoff, starting around LE, and cutting back into the EZ. Lions 31 Browns 14
    Lary takes the kick 2y deep and runs out to the 22. On the very first play, the Lions negate what the Browns just did in their 10-play, 80y drive. Rote fakes a pitch to left, steps back, and throws deep down the right sideline to Doran at the Cleveland 40. When Konz tries for the INT and misses, Jim has clear sailing to the EZ. Lions 38 Browns 14
    The TD pass grew out of a conversation QB and receiver had on the sidelines. Rote explained after the game: Jim told me he thought he could get behind Konz, and he did, didn't he?
    Brown returns a rare short kickoff from the 11 to the 28, where Martin makes the tackle. The LBs shoot the gaps, which allows DE Gil Mains and DT Ray Krouse to sack Plum at the 17. Konz punts to Lary, who makes a fair catch at his 41.
    Lary wore a helmet with a face mask when returning punts but a different "hat" with no face mask while on defense. Years later, Yale recalled the '57 title game.
    I was covering Ray Renfro, and we were ahead by a lot. We were real good friends in Fort Worth. Ray came down the field and ran across. I was covering him, and they threw it to somebody else. He said, "You know, Yale, this is the long f***ing ball game I've ever played in my life."
    Gedman sprints around LE to the 46. Rote, playing the best game of his career, fades to pass, then runs across midfield to the 38. A personal foul on Cleveland adds 15 to the gain. Rote hasn't forgotten about Junker and finds him flying across middle. Steve surges into the EZ for his second TD of the day. Lions 45 Browns 14
    Martin kicks to Reynolds at the 7, then helps Gordy down the returner at the 27. Brown spins through LT to the 40. The run doesn't deter the Lions from rushing hard on every play. When Plum retreats to pass, he is hit as he throws by DE Gene Cronin, and loses the ball, T Gerry Perry recovering on the 32. The referee rules the play a fumble for the Browns' sixth turnover.

Steve Junker scores his second TD of the game.
  • Quarter 4
    Still pouring on the coals to avenge the 56-10 loss to Cleveland in the 1954 title game, the Lions add another TD on the first play. Rote connects with E Dave Middleton just a step behind the defender in the EZ. Lions 52 Browns 14
    Reynolds' 19y runback starts the next possession at the 27. Following Lew Carpenter's 5y run around RE, Plum escapes a rusher and rambles to the Lion 41. Next, Lew works his way through the Lions' seven-man line to the 32. Milt flips to Brown in the right flat, and DB Jack Christiansen upends the rookie star at the 28. On 4th down, Plum tosses over the middle to Preston Carpenter to the 23, and the Lions take over.
    Gedman runs to the 30 where he is hit by Vince Costello. The Browns are assessed another personal foul penalty. Jerry Reichow replaces Rote, who receives a standing ovation after accounting for 307y running and passing. The fans who stay enjoy another Lion TD march. Cassady bolts 35y to the 35. Another 15 is tacked on for a personal foul. Howard runs the same play to the left to the 17. Then Reichow rolls right and throws to Hopalong who takes the pigskin on the run at 5 and heads across the goal. Martin goes 8-for-8 on PATs, a championship game record. Lions 59 Browns 14
Final statistics:
  • First downs: Lions 22 Browns 17
  • Yards rushing: Lions 36-137 Browns 38-218
  • Passing: Lions 21-13-0/196 Browns 21-13-0/296
  • Return yardage: Lions 10-123 Browns 11-184
  • Fumbles-Lost: Lions 3-1 Browns 2-2
  • Penalties: Lions 7-52 Browns 4-60
  • Punting average: Lions 4-36.3 Browns 4-35.5
Postgame

Detroit Locker Room

  • The Lions presented the game ball to Frank Gatski, in his first year with the team after spending 11 seasons with the Browns. Frank took over the C position when Charley Ane was injured before the season began.
  • Rote admitted he called the fake field goal. When asked what would have happened if the play failed, Tobin replied, Oh, don't mention that. I'd be in the dog house. No, that's wrong, really. George is a gambler too. He would have gone along.
  • Wilson confirmed his QB's opinion by saying he had no problem with the call. Rote called the play, and it was just fine with me the way it worked out. We worked on it some last week. Today was the day to use it. This was the big one. There was no reason to hold anything back in a game like this. In fact, George thought the TD off the fake "lifted us over the hill."
  • Schmidt: Cleveland isn't a hard team anymore. They're not as tough as they used to be when they had Graham and some of those other guys. They don't hit as hard.

Cleveland Locker Room

  • Paul Brown on the worst defeat of his coaching career and the most lopsided NFL championship game since the Bears' 73-0 thumping of the Redskins in 1940: I'm philosophical about it. The ball was just going to bounce that way, and it did. The Lions were whetted to a fine competitive edge, and we had been standing by waiting. ... Rote and his receivers had a great day. They did everything right, guys diving and catching on their fingertips. I've got to give them credit. He also praised the fans. We couldn't hear our own signals. That crowd noise was terrific. There's something about that ballpark that makes the crowd noise drown out our signals. Finally, we just gave up trying to defeat the confusion.
  • Tommy O'Connell revealed information that had been kept secret. A month earlier, he suffered not just a sprained ankle but also a spiral fracture of his left leg just below the knee. I don't offer this as an excuse. Actually, my leg didn't bother me very much. I felt it once or twice after being hit, but that's all. I just had a lousy day. My timing was way off. I suppose it was because I didn't do anything for three weeks. Last Tuesday was the first time I worked out. Coach Brown explained that O'Connell's fracture had calcified while he recuperated from the ankle injury. But he had simply lost that competitive edge. It's tough to come back after being out for four weeks. I don't blame Tommy at all. Just one of those things. Brown said that he would have started Plum at QB if the rookie hadn't pulled a hamstring in his left leg during Tuesday's practice.

The team split a record amount from gross receipts.

  • The sale of tickets plus the take from radio and television produced $593,967.
  • Each Lion received $4,295.
  • The Browns took hom e $2,750 apiece.
Happy with the younger Tobin Rote, the Lions traded Bobby Layne to the Steelers for the '58 season, reuniting him with former coach Buddy Parker. Incensed that he was going to a perennial loser, Layne predicted that Detroit would not win another championship for 50 years. It's now 58 years and counting. Detroit has won only one playoff game since Layne's departure, a 38-6 thumping of the Cowboys in 1991 before losing to the Redskins 41-10 in the NFC Championship Game. That makes the Lions 1-11 in the playoffs since 1957.
As for the Browns, they also entered an eclipse period after 1957, not winning the East Division again until 1964, two years after Paul Brown was replaced as head coach by Blanton Collier. The '64 Browns larruped the Baltimore Colts 27-0 to capture their fourth - and to this day, last - NFL title.

1957 NFL Champion Detroit Lions
References: War Stories from the Field, Joseph Hession & Kevin Lynch (1994)
Championship: The NFL Title Games plus Super Bowl, Jerry Izenberg (1970)
Pro Football Championships before the Super Bowl: A Year-by-Year History, 1926-1965, Joseph S. Page (2011)
The Game before the Money: Voices of the Men Who Built the NFL, Jackson Michael (2014)
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